Jinan city, also named Spring city, is the provincial capital of the big
economic province of China’s eastern coastal-Shandong province, also the
political center, economic center, cultural center, science and technology
center, education center, and financial center of Shandong. It is national
sub-provincial city and coastal open city.
Jinan is next to Mount Tai in south, to Yellow River in north. Its total
area is 8177 square kilometers.
Jinan has the jurisdiction over Lixia, Shizhong, Huaiyin, Tianqiao,
Licheng, Changqing, High-tech Zone, Pingyin county, Shanghe county, Jiyang
county and Zhangqiu city.
At the year end of 2015, Jinan City has 1.9967 million households with a total registered population of 6.1325 million, including 3.0493 million males and 3.0832 million females. The resident population in the city is 6.999 million, and the urbanization rate 66%.
Jinan is located between latitude 36 ° 02 ' - 37 ° 33' N and longitude 116°13′- 117°45′E. At the northern foot of Taishan Mountain, Jinan has diversified terrain, being plain along the Yellow River in the north, plain at the piedmont in the center and low mountains and hills in the south, rising from north to south. The city has a warm temperate continental monsoon climate with four distinct seasons. The winter is cold and the summer hot. Due to the control by polar or modified polar continental air mass, Jinan in winter constantly suffers from the Siberian dry and cold air mass. Thus, northwest, north and northeast winds prevail, resulting in dry, cold and fine weather with little rainfall in winter. In summer, controlled by tropical and subtropical marine air masses, southwest, south and southeast winds prevail, resulting in moist and hot weather with concentrated rainfalls and frequent thunderstorms. Spring and autumn are transitional seasons for winter and summer monsoons, with changing wind. The annual average temperature is 14.6℃, leading the province.
1) Land resource. The city has a total land area of 7,998 square km, divided into six kinds—brown soil, cinnamon soil, moisture soil, lime concretion black soil, paddy soil and aeolian sandy soil. The brown soil and cinnamon soil are major ones.
2) Mineral resources, mainly including coal, oil, natural gas, iron, geothermal energy and construction materials.
3) The local water resources amount to 1.59 billion cubic meters, including 1.47 billion cubic meters available.
4) Biological resources. There are 149 families of plants, totaling 1,175 kinds and varieties, and 211 kinds of terrestrial wild animals.
As one of the famous historical and cultural cities promulgated by the State Council, Jinan is located to the south of Jishui (the old river course is occupied by today’s Yellow River), one of the four major rivers in ancient times, thus its Chinese name Jinan (Nan means south).
With a long history, Jinan has given birth to talented people from generation to generation. Historical celebrities from present-day Jinan mainly include: Bian Que (real name Qin Yueren), an outstanding representative of Chinese traditional medicine and a miracle-working doctor of the Warring States Period (475 BC-221 BC); Zou Yan, initiator of the concepts of Yin-Yang and the Five Elements and thinker of the Warring States Period; Fu Sheng, a scholar of the Han Dynasty dictating 28 articles of The Book of History; Zhong Jun, a diplomat of the Han Dynasty, requesting to be sent to South Vietnam and making contributions to the cause of reunification of the country; Du Fuwei and Fu Gongshi, leaders of the insurrectionary army of farmers in the late Sui Dynasty; Fang Xuanling, a founding hero and famous prime minister of the Tang Dynasty; Qin Qiong, a famous general of the Tang Dynasty; Yijing (secular name Zhang Wenming) of Tang Dynasty, one of the three major eminent monks in ancient China; two famous Ci writers of the Song Dynasty: Li Qingzhao, representative of the “subtle and concise school”, and Xin Qiji, representative of the “powerful and free school”; Sanqu writers of the Jin and Yuan Dynasties: Zhang Yanghao and Du Renjie; Zhang Qiyan, editor-in-chief of three official history books of the Song, Liao and Jin Dynasties; Bian Gong, one of the former “Seven Masters”, and Li Panlong, one of the seven latter “Seven Masters” in the Ming Dynasty; Li Kaixian, dramatist of the Ming Dynasty and author of The Legend of the Precious Sword and other dramas; Yu Shenxing, senior grand secretary of Cabinet, leading the literary circle in the Wanli Period of the Ming Dynasty; Zhang Erqi, a classicist of the Qing Dynasty; Zhou Yongnian, chief compiler of Complete Library in the Four Branches of Literature and bibliophile of the Qing Dynasty; Ma Guohan, a philologist of the Qing Dynasty and compiler of Books Compiled in Yuhanshanfang House; and Meng Luochuan, a national industrialist in modern times and representative of the businesses of the “Xiang” brand, etc.